Definition of Education: Goals, Elements, Foundations, Principles, and Educational Environment

Definition of Education

According to a pedagogical expert from the Netherlands, Langeveld, suggests that education is a guidance given by adults to immature children to achieve the goal, namely maturity.

Education and education are two things that are related. Educating means taking an action in the form of providing education to other parties.

According to Ki Hajar Dewantara, educating is guiding all the natural forces that exist in children so that they as humans and as members of society can achieve the highest safety and happiness.

Then, according to Crijns and Reksosiswoyo, educating is the help given by whoever is responsible for a child’s growth to bring it to an adult level.

According to the 1973 GBHN, education is essentially a conscious effort to develop the personality and abilities of students inside and outside school and lasts a lifetime.

There are several basic concepts regarding education, namely:

1. That education lasts for a lifetime (long life education). This is because the education business has actually started since humans are born from the mother’s womb until they die.

The concept of lifelong education seems to give an understanding that education is not identical with the school environment, but also in the family and community environment.

2. Educational responsibility is a shared responsibility between family, community, and government.

3. For humans, education is an obligation because from education, humans can have developing abilities and personalities.

So it can be concluded from these opinions that education is a conscious effort, not a haphazard act so that he becomes a responsible and independent adult human being.

Education Only Applies To Humans

Educational efforts concern the conscience, values, feelings, knowledge, and human skills.

Only humans can be educated and receive education because humans are equipped with reason.

While animals are not educated and do not allow to be educated, so it is impossible to be involved in the educational process.
Why Do Humans Need to Get Education?

There are several possible assumptions why a human being needs to get an education in his life, namely:

Humans are born into the world in a state of helplessness so they need to get help from others to carry on their lives.
Humans are born not immediately become an adult. In order to reach the adult level, an educational process is needed.
In essence, humans are social creatures so they cannot live without other humans.
In essence, humans can be educated and get education throughout their lives.

Educational Goals

The purpose of education in one country with another will of course be different depending on the basis of the state, philosophy of life, and state ideology. So as an Indonesian human, education has the following objectives:

To achieve a better life.
To form Indonesian people who have attitudes and behavior in accordance with the values ​​of Pancasila.

To achieve this is with maturity.

There are several indicators used to call an individual has become an adult, namely:

Independent; can live alone, do not depend on others for their lives, and can make decisions about their lives.
Take responsibility for his actions.
Understand the norms and morals that apply in society.

Elements in Education

1. Learners

In this day and age, students are not always the only ones who receive information from educators. However, they can give each other feedback to educators and among other students.

In addition, the knowledge possessed by students can be different from other students. This could be due to differences in the educational environment.

2. Educator

Educators are divided into two types, namely a) natural educators, namely parents as the first educators since the individual was born into the world; and b) professional educators, namely teachers.

Parents as natural educators are not carried out at the will of the child, but solely by nature that they must educate their children in different ways and rules.

Even in this day and age, not a few parents neglect their responsibilities as natural educators. The reasons are various, one of which is the lack of time to interact with children due to being too busy at work.

The limited time has made the transfer of children’s education to the state and society (in the form of the teaching profession).

Teachers as professional educators have accepted the responsibility of educating from various parties, namely parents, society, and the state (government). This responsibility is accepted on the basis of the belief that a teacher is able to provide an appropriate education for students.

Especially now that being a teacher has quite a lot of requirements, it’s not just enough to have a bachelor’s degree in education. Pancasila spirit, democratic, physically healthy, are some of the other requirements that must be owned by a teacher.

3. Purpose

Every education given to students must have a purpose. For example, so that students are good at speaking, reading and writing, counting; so that students have noble character, love for the nation and homeland; and others.

These goals must be assessed based on the needs and abilities of students so that the educational process can be accepted as a good life value.

4. Education Content

The content of education includes everything that is given by educators to their students in order to achieve educational goals.

The content of this education is in the form of material that must be adapted to the educational goals and abilities of students.

5. Educational Method

In relation to education, this method depends on the ability of the educator in question and the means of education.

In the educational process, it often happens that the X method is not successfully applied by educator A, but it is successfully carried out by educator B. So it can be said that an educational method still has its advantages and disadvantages.

6. Educational Environment Situation

The environmental situation is one of the most influential elements in the educational process. The environmental situation in question is the socio-cultural environment, the physical environment (buildings), and the natural environment (weather and seasons).

The Foundation of National Education in Indonesia

Ideal Foundation: Pancasila
Constitutional Foundation: The 1945 Constitution
Operational Foundation: Basic Law on National Education

Principles of Educational Implementation

Universal, comprehensive, and integrated principles. This principle means that education is open to every Indonesian citizen, covering all types and levels of education.
The principle of lifelong education. In this principle, every individual must have the right and opportunity to receive teaching and learning at any time during his life.
The principle of responsibility between family, community, and government.
The principle of education takes place in the household, school, and community.
The principle of harmony and integration with National Resilience and Archipelago Insight.
The principle of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
The principles of ing ngarso sung tulodho, ing madyo mangun karso, tut wuri handayani.
The principle of legal certainty

Educational Environment

1. Family Education Environment

The family is the first and foremost form of educational environment for every individual born into the world. Therefore, parents act as educators who are responsible for the educational process.

An expert named Drost revealed that in a school education environment more of developing individual academic abilities, while in an educational environment the family is responsible for personality development.

Family education is divided into prenatal and postnatal stages.

In this prenatal stage, it is related to education before birth or since the individual is still in the womb. The form of practice tends to be local wisdom, for example in Javanese culture there are neloni, mitoni, and others.

2. School Education Environment

Along with the development of human civilization, schools become the main position in human education efforts.

Schools are responsible for parents and society in the field of education for future generations.

The basis of this responsibility includes three things, namely:

Formal institutional responsibilities in accordance with the functions and objectives according to educational legislation.
Scientific responsibilities are based on the form, content, purpose, and level of education.
Functional responsibilities to managers and education implementers who receive stipulations based on the provisions of their positions.

3. Community Education Environment

In many ways, schools are considered to have fallen behind from the community. Especially in the field of technology, it has happened earlier in society than in schools.

Therefore, it is necessary to make various efforts to familiarize schools with the community. For example, with the internship system, KKN (Real Work Course), PKL (Field Work Practice), and others.